“Decision makers (DMs) often deal with problems that involve multiple, usually conflicting, criteria” (Yoon and Hwang 1995, p.2). From a Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) perspective, these problems shared common characteristics such as having multiple/different attributes with different units of measurement and weights. At a policy formulation stage or, in order words, when “exploring the various options or alternatives available for addressing a problem through policy analysis” (Howlett 2011, p.30), Attribute Ranking Tools (ARTs) attempt to help define/generate the key attributes for each policy/public problem. In this sense, ARTs are procedural instruments as they facilitate the DMs actors involved at the formulation stage in the policy choices process and in structuring decision-making.
Domingos Moreira Cardoso and Jorge Freire de Sousa. (2005). A Multi-Attribute Ranking Solutions Confirmation Procedure. Annals of Operations Research 138 (1): 127-141 pp.
Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng and Jih-Jeng Huang. (2011). Multiple attribute decision-making: methods and applications. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press
K. Paul Yoon and Hwang, C. (1995). Multiple Attribute Decision Making. SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412985161
Michael Howlett (2011). Designing public policies: principles and instruments. New York: Routledge