Revision for “Environment and Sustainable Development” created on November 20, 2014 @ 02:52:18

Environment and Sustainable Development
<h2><a href="">The Dirty Business of Sand: Sand Dredging in Cambodia</a></h2>
<dl class="item-info"><dt class="author">Author/s:</dt><dd class="author">FAZLIN ABDULLAH and GOH ANN TAT</dd><dt class="posted">Year:</dt><dd class="posted">2011</dd><dt class="summary">Abstract:</dt><dd class="summary">Global Witness, an international NGO, released its “Shifting Sand” report on sand-dredging in Cambodia in May 2010. The report highlighted the damage sand-dredging was causing to the livelihoods of local fishermen as well as the environment in the Koh Kong Province and alleged corrupt practices in the granting of licences. The sand was being exported to Singapore. Cambodia needed to sell its natural resources in order to develop and had attempted measures to protect its natural resources, however, the report showed that these efforts had not been very effective. The relationship between the Cambodian government and Global Witness had become strained due to earlier confrontations and the Cambodian government rejected the claims made in the latest report. The report, though, had generated interest among the international media and the team at Global Witness needed to define a strategy that would be most effective in stopping the sand dredging given the socio-political climate and the various resources it could mobilize from the government, public, media and development aid agencies.</dd><dd class="summary">
<h2><a href="">The Proposed Cross Island Line in Singapore: Nature or Development?</a></h2>
<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">Author/s:</span>

<dl class="item-info"><dd class="author">KRISHNAN CHANDRAMOHAN</dd><dt class="posted">Year:</dt><dd class="posted">2014</dd><dt class="summary">Abstract:</dt><dd class="summary">The 50-km long Cross Island Line proposed by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) is a vital cog in Singapore’s ambitious effort to double the existing national rail network by 2030. It also runs through the central catchment nature reserve (CCNR). Apart from the four reservoirs, the CCNR also holds a wide variety of fauna, including the fragments of the last primary forests in Singapore and flora, which includes endangered species such as the banded leaf monkey. The case brings forth the tension between environmental conservation and urban development in a land constrained city/state.</dd><dd class="summary">
<h2><a href="">Transboundary Haze: How Might the Singapore Government Minimise its Occurrence?</a></h2>
<dl class="item-info"><dt class="author">Author/s:</dt><dd class="author">ALISHA GILL and TAN SHIN BIN</dd><dt class="posted">Year:</dt><dd class="posted">2014</dd><dt class="summary">Abstract:</dt><dd class="summary">Singapore is no stranger to the haze. Transboundary haze, caused by the burning of forests and peat lands in Kalimantan and Sumatra, has been a sporadic problem in Southeast Asia since 1985. It was labelled “the most serious problem in the region” by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) following the long and severe 1997-98 haze episode. The perennial haze raises several questions. First, given the large economic loss caused by the fires and haze, why is there a lack of robust responses to the problem? Despite expert claims that the haze is a complex but manageable problem, it has proven to be remarkably intractable for several decades. What is it about ASEAN and, in particular, Indonesia that make effective remedies elusive? Second, given Indonesia and ASEAN’s political peculiarities, should Singaporean policymakers muster a more effective unilateral response to mitigate haze? If so, what form should this response take? This case will address these questions by first considering the causes of the haze, the measures that have been taken to mitigate haze, and the reasons they have fallen short. It concludes by considering if the Singapore government should act unilaterally to mitigate the fires and haze problem and, if so, how it should go about doing it</dd></dl></dd></dl></dd></dl>

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